Create an AI-powered research feed to stay up to date with new papers like this posted to ArXiv. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: In recent years, China has sought to supplement its traditional use of hard power with soft power, and thus the Chinese government has paid more and more attention to public diplomacy.
Chinese governments have previously demonstrated a limited understanding of public diplomacy, seeing it either as external propaganda or a form of internal public affairs, but this has not prevented China from becoming a skilled public diplomacy player.
View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. Framing a sinocentric narrative? Oluwaseun Tella Sociology References Publications referenced by this paper. A ringside view of history in the making. Guy de Financial Times, March Kurlantzick, Joshua RawnsleyD Gary Europeans see US as threat to peace.
DombeyDanielStanley Pignal. Financial Times, July 3. The Economist. China in Africa: Never too late to scramble. October The image of a nation is crucial in the conduct of international relations. As a rising power, China is increasingly concerned about its image, due to which it is increasingly investing into its public diplomacy.
This article introduces the Chinese debates on public diplomacy. In doing so, it helps to better understand how China sees itself in the world mainly misunderstoodhow China perceives the international environment potentially hostileand how China wants to be seen by the outside world as a friendly, peaceful, and reliable partner.
Furthermore, this article demonstrates that in China, public diplomacy is understood more as an instrument to fulfill strategic and functional purposes and less as an instrument of mutuality. Although the non-Chinese discourse focuses on mutuality, exchange, and reciprocal communication, China is more concerned with getting its message out and convincing the world of its benign intentions.
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Issue Section:.Global media in public diplomacy has increasingly proved its usefulness in recent years. Many governments have competitively engaged in a war of public diplomacy through media to make their countries look attractive and friendly to foreigners while also setting the stage for others to understand their positions in the international arena.
The success or failure of public diplomacy through media, however, can only be judged by its intended audience. Furthermore, only when such media activities are combined with cultural programs and people-to-people exchanges can its synergy effects be maximized. However, as seen in past cases of cartoons, photos and video clips, carelessness and negligence can seriously damage the public diplomacy efforts of major powers.
To prevent these types of incidents, public awareness campaigns should be arranged to encourage every citizen to join in the public diplomacy activities.
Furthermore, global media is expected to play a constructive role in the expansion of common ground for promoting peace and harmony among citizens of neighboring countries through consultations with counterpart media in the same region. The progress of technology in mass communication has allowed media to reach every corner of the world more quickly with vivid graphics. Therefore, global media plays a very important role in international relations, and most policymakers depend on live news coverage provided by CNN and other outlets.
Public Diplomacy and the Rise of Chinese Soft Power
This phenomenon provides a positive effect, as it introduces democratic and humanitarian aspects in the policy-making process.
On the other hand, it causes a bigger burden to both policymakers and reporters. Under the time pressure required by global media live coverage, journalists may take risks by reporting what they see without deeply analyzing the situation and politicians may respond quickly without carefully considering their overall situation.
In spite of this problem, global media has become one of many tools each government employs in conducting its own public diplomacy programs. Furthermore, new media are also targeting special groups of people with less sense of rebuttal from their targeted audiences.
Radio Sawa, Al Hurra Television, and other broadcasters of special languages are some good examples. As the influence of mass media continues to grow, policy-makers tend to utilize the media for their own benefit, publicizing their policies and positions on certain issues. However, after State Department officials began engaging Al-Jazeera more actively because the U.
By explaining American policies on TV, the U. In such context, President Barack Obama had an interview with Al-Arabiya Television, one of the most influential Arabic broadcasters, during the first week of his first term in order to directly appeal to Arabic and Islamic people. As such, politicians go beyond the simple norm of public diplomacy and try to provide more detailed and comprehensive information through sophisticated techniques.
This trend has encouraged big powers such as the U. In short, they are now fully engaged in a war to win the hearts and minds of people of the world.
However, global media is not the panacea for public diplomacy. Without sufficient reliability of the media, it is hard to expect effective results.German camera manufacturer Leica wanted to pay tribute to heroic photographers with an advertising video. One of the featured photographers had taken a picture of a young Chinese man standing in front of a tank in the center of Beijing in June The Chinese government blocked the website for a week. The text led to widespread indignation in China, even though the social media service is blocked there.
These three examples are by no means isolated cases. Sincecommunication campaigns launched by all of these international corporations were publicly criticized by China — often even sanctioned — even when the campaigns were not targeted at the Chinese market.
Most of the companies had no choice but to apologize in Beijing so as not to jeopardize their market position. The Chinese Foreign Ministry in created a department for public diplomacy under the purview of the information department. An extensive network of state actors, state-financed media, and public-diplomacy instruments has appeared since then.
Public diplomacy includes instruments that can, on the one hand, coerce or incentivize cooperative behavior, and, on the other hand, sanction undesired behavior. It is essential to understand these instruments can have an effect on corporate communications activities outside China. Public diplomacy has to be treated as a corporate risk that continually has the potential to turn into a cross-border organizational and reputational crisis. This, for one, is due to the greater prominence of B2C businesses and the resulting higher reputational risk customer boycotts.
Alone the fact that they are looking so meticulously is something quite new. What kind of things draw Beijing's criticism? Companies that all too publicly submit to Chinese pressure risk losses in their international reputation. The supermarket chain was weakened by a diplomatic conflict between China and South Korea that lasted for more than a year. German companies saw most of their disputes with China settled within a few days.
Monday, 5 February Although the photo-sharing service is blocked in China, the words cause great agitation there. It is no longer possible to reconstruct whether the entry was first noticed by private users or by Chinese officials who then deliberately distributed the post.
Tuesday, 6 February Wednesday, 7 February Thursday, 8 February Sunday, 11 February It is easy to pinpoint where alleged misconduct by foreign companies in China is first discussed — on social media. But it is not so easy to identify who flags such issues first — government officials or outraged citizens. If they want to, the [party and government] can stop any topic from being discussed on the internet or in the Global Times.
But they can also set off a debate about any issue if they want to. And right now, they usually want to. China can also indirectly orchestrate campaigns on social media by simply letting the censorship authorities ignore statements they would usually react to:.
The Chinese government chose to expose Daimler both in the domestic public space of state-controlled Chinese social media, and in the global arena forged by Twitter and other social media blocked in China. Interestingly, the Chinese government itself never commented on Daimler. It was the state-controlled social media that turned the instagram post into a crisis — and ended it. China appears to have a script for such public diplomacy cases. Usually, criticism of a foreign company starts on Chinese social media.
As the author learned from Daimler that the company and Chinese authorities were in contact on several occasions during the crisis — although timing, atmosphere and frequency remain unclear.
If they bow to Chinese demands so as not to jeopardize their market access and the good will of the Chinese leadership and public, the international media and public will criticize these companies. The Daimler case study is exemplary for showing that China is not interested in preventing allegations that the feelings of the Chinese people have been insulted or injured, or in having them forgotten as quickly as possible. Firstly, the Chinese side is interested in international publicity for the initial misstep and the subsequent apology — almost an act of submission — to China.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Rise of China's Public Diplomacy. Ingrid d'Hooghe. Clingendael Diplomacy Papers No. It also maintains a library and documentation centre. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright-holders. Clingendael Institute, P. Various groups have even called for a boycott of the Beijing Olympic Games ofthereby threatening to change a major public diplomacy tool for Beijing from a Chinese carrot into a possible international stick.
The practice of public diplomacy gonggong waijiao seems to have preceded discussion of the concept in China. It argues that in spite of the fact that China is a one-party state with a centralist authoritarian regime that has far-reaching control over public diplomacy instruments, its public diplomacy is no longer solely confined to a hierarchical state-centred format.
The new public diplomacy is about engaging publics, not just informing them; it is about establishing long-term relationships that will build trust, a concept not unfamiliar in Chinese culture. Until the end of the s, activities at this level were almost entirely initiated and organized by the state, of which the CPAFFC in practice is a continuation, but from the s onwards a growing number of exchanges took place without much official involvement, although in most cases permission from the authorities is still needed.
In some countries, such as Canada, engaging domestic audiences is a structural part of the public diplomacy strategy. Lack of transparency in Chinese policy-making further hampers analysis.
The role of global media in public diplomacy
It is this economic success that has opened many doors in the world and has given Beijing the leverage and confidence to assert itself as a global player. But at the same time this economic rise is perceived as a threat by many countries. However, most of the time these subtle changes are hardly recognized in the West, let alone that China gets credit for them, a fact that frustrates both the government and public in China.
Positive developments are overshadowed by international concerns about the slow pace and limited radius of reform of the authoritarian political system and about the lack of progress in the area of human rights.
As China needs a peaceful and stable international environment, energy, and raw materials for its economic growth, it is doing its best to avoid conflicts and dependency on one country or region and to expand and strengthen its foreign relationships. Wherever and whenever Chinese leaders get the chance, they stress to regional audiences that China envisages mutually beneficial growth leading to co- prosperity and does not seek hegemony.
Furthermore China wants to be seen as a country that takes responsibility for world affairs. Zheng pointed out that in the past, rise of a new power often resulted in drastic changes to global political structures, and even war, because these rising powers chose the road of aggression and expansion.
China, however, would develop peacefully and would help to maintain a peaceful international environment. Since the early s, therefore, the principles of sovereignty and non-intervention have been adjusted and loosened, which has, among other things, enabled China to become active at the multilateral level and contribute to multilateral peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention.
With this soft approach, Beijing avoids antagonizing partners and buys itself time to adjust to new realities. This development is partially a bottom-up process but is also promoted and sometimes initiated by the government.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Giorgio Shani. Public diplomacy became an important foreign policy tool in the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union.
This political context shaped the way in which public diplomacy was conceptualized in the scholarship during that period and in U. The mission of current U. Initiatives thus far by both countries have been aimed more at shaping a global image than influencing the foreign policy attitudes of foreign publics.
As their visibility and their stake in the global economy increased, so did the need for these two rising powers to reassess and enhance their respective images in the world arena. Although both had long engaged in activities they would subsequently label public diplomacy, both governments discovered public diplomacy as a concept and as a strategic imperative about the same time. In India began to consider public diplomacy important enough to warrant a special niche in the bureaucracy by establishing the Public Diplomacy Division PD Division of the Ministry of External Affairs.
About the same time the terms public diplomacy and soft power began to make their way into speeches and articles of high level Chinese officials e. These differences shape their respective public diplomacy missions. The comparison also suggests how these differences shape their respective public diplomacy missions.
This boost to the tourist industry came in response to what was regarded as a crisis situation when tourist traffic to India had reached a low point after the destruction of the World Trade Center, the bombing of the Indian parliament, and the U.
The campaign transformed tourism in India with the number of tourists increasing from 2. Significantly, the idea of brand India made its way into the highest levels of the External Affairs Ministry in relation to public diplomacy.
The establishment of a new organizational unit in in the Ministry of External Affairs dedicated to the formulation and implementation of public diplomacy policies required a fresh look at the concept. A website was created that provides a definition, a mission statement, and information about activities. Successful public diplomacy involves an active engagement with the public in a manner that builds, over a period of time, a relationship of trust and credibility.
The PD Division website has accounts in each of those social media and links to them to its website. The Ministry of External Affairs website and many of the Indian embassy sites abroad also have links to these social media sites on their respective home pages. Indian embassies around the world were encouraged to set up their own Facebook pages oriented toward their specific country.
There is considerable variation among Embassy sites and their linked Facebook pages. Some merely include a few items from the PD social media sites. Others include news and items of cultural interest more directly related to the specific country. Some are bilingual, and popular local platforms are used in addition when possible. Obviously, much depends upon the local resources of the diplomatic staff in place, as there is no special training.
There is a considerable overlap in the content of the three media. It was not until that there was a significant increase in the use of social media by heads of state and government, ministers, and diplomats Lufkens, India was listed among the thirty most active embassies in Washington DC in March, and was one of only five that had an account for all three media, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube for the ambassador as well as the embassy.
But image projection is a challenge for India, which is typically described as a land of contrasts, contradictions, paradoxes, and puzzles. No country is a match for its diversity with its multiplicity of languages, religions, and ethnic groups. How to construct an image of diversity? Individual videos highlighting in positive terms the various religions of India conveys the message of a rich culture and a society in which diversity is not only tolerated but also appreciated.
There are videos on various aid, technical assistance and other collaborative projects, such as Africa Summit. Included in the culture category here are literature, arts, history, tourist sites, popular culture, and religion. Often short messages are linked to a video in the YouTube collection, which provides a more extensive and colorful explanation.
Entries sometimes come in a series, for example, on the cuisines and the folk arts of different regions. To appeal to potential tourists, there were postings on about sites in India with bits of information on history, architecture, etc.Date Published. Custer, S.
DiLorenzo, M. Four panel discussions and a lunch keynote, all featuring experts from around the world, dove deeper into the reach and influence of Chinese public diplomacy and the policy implications for countries across the Asia-Pacific. Visit the event page to watch the conference recordings. You can also explore an interactive feature showcasing maps and charts from the report. There is a growing consensus that Beijing has dramatically increased the volume and sophistication of its public diplomacy efforts under President Xi Jinping.
Yet there has historically been a lack of quantifiable data to assess the scope and downstream consequences of these activities. In addition to extensive quantitative data, the reports draws from on-the-ground insights from over 70 government officials, civil society and private sector leaders, academics, journalists, and foreign diplomats in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Fiji, and interviews with public diplomacy scholars and practitioners.
The report's findings and conclusions are those of its authors alone, and do not necessarily reflect the views of funder and partner organizations. Austin M. The data includes both Chinese aid and non-concessional official financing.
Abstract There is a growing consensus that Beijing has dramatically increased the volume and sophistication of its public diplomacy efforts under President Xi Jinping. Related Publications. Featured Authors Policy Analysis. Policy Analysis.
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